July 2020 cover
PCB West 2020 ad - Conference Catalog Online Now!
July 2020
white arrow with black shadow
Siborg Systems Inc. Advertisement
Thin Lamination Board Advertisement
Yamaha Advertisement
July 2020 • VOL. 37 • NO. 7
First Person
6
Getting vertical.
Mike Buetow
money matters
14
Let’s get together.
Peter Bigelow
15
What’s your purchasing plan?
Greg Papandrew
Tech Talk
17
Place and route: it’s what we are here for.
John Burkhert
19
The demands of FB2 frequencies.
Alun Morgan
21
Let’s talk about crosstalk.
Bill Hargin
37
Lean strikes back at Covid.
John Sheehan
40
Why your board is stuck.
Akber Roy
42
Dear diary.
Robert Boguski
44
Is my lead floating in the solder joint?
Bob Willis
Departments
July 2020 • VOL. 37 • NO. 7
Features
24
Signal Integrity
How four-layer PCBs came about, and how to create a set of design rules and a stackup that results in a solid, functional design with minimum constraints.
by Lee Ritchey
28
PCB Layout
Confusion reigns over whether to route differential traces close together, whether a plane needs to be underneath differential traces, or whether to consider differential impedance design rules with differential traces. But what if signal integrity were no issue?
by Douglas G. Brooks, Ph.D.
Up Media July 2020 cover
30
iNEMI Roadmap
Hackers gotta hack. What can the electronics industry do to change that?
by Joanne Friedman, Ph.D., and Barbara Goldstein
32
Factory Layout
A new layout marries staff resources to immediate demand, making it easier to shift cross-trained employees among work cells.
by Clint Hanson
34
Machine Interfaces
Electronics assemblers often assume an MES solution is all they need to gain complete control of all processes and traceability for SMT, manual assembly, box build, test, and rework processes. But true lights-out manufacturing mandates a standard communication protocol.
by Ranko Vujosevic, Ph.D., and Matthew Fischer
IN the Digital Edition
 
The latest happenings of the Printed Circuit Engineering Association.
by KELLY DACK
 
State-of-the-Art Technology Flashes
Updates in silicon and electronics technology.
by Binghamton University

ON PCB CHAT (pcbchat.com)

Corporate Talent Strategy
with Audrey McGuckin
The HDP User Group
with John Davignon
Supply Chain Changes in the Covid Era
with Christopher Tang, Ph.D.
The PCB Make/Buy Decision
with Ted Conrad
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
PRINTED CIRCUIT DESIGN & FAB/CIRCUITS ASSEMBLY, PO Box 470, Canton, GA 30169
Rush PCB Inc. Advertisement
DownStream Technologies Advertisement
Editorial
Editor in chief
Mike Buetow, 617-327-4702, mbuetow@upmediagroup.com
SENIOR Editor
Chelsey Drysdale, 949-295-3109, cdrysdale@upmediagroup.com
design technical Editor
Pete Waddell
editorial office
P.O. Box 470, Canton, GA 30169,
888-248-7020
PCD&F CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Akber Roy, Peter Bigelow, John Burkhert, Mark Finstad, Bryan Germann, Bill Hargin, Nick Koop, Greg Papandrew
Circuits Assembly CONTRIBUTING EDITORS AND ADVISORS
Clive Ashmore, David Bernard, Robert Boguski, John D. Borneman, Joseph Fama, Susan Mucha, Chrys Shea, Jan Vardaman, Ranko Vujosevic
Production

Art Director and production
blueprint4MARKETING, Inc., production@upmediagroup.com

Sales
Sales DIRECTOR
Frances Stewart, 678-817-1286,
fstewart@upmediagroup.com
SENIOR SALES ASSOCIATE
Brooke Anglin, 404-316-9018,
banglin@upmediagroup.com
EXHIBIT sales
Frances Stewart, 678-817-1286,
fstewart@upmediagroup.com
PRINT/electronic Reprints
cdrysdale@upmediagroup.com
SUBSCRIPTIONS
For changes, additions or cancelations: subscriptions@upmediagroup.com.
UP Media Group, Inc.

president
Pete Waddell
vice president, sales and marketing 
Frances Stewart
vice president, editorial and production
Mike Buetow
director of group shows
Alyson Corey, acorey@upmediagroup.com

Printed Circuit Design & Fab/Circuits Assembly is distributed without charge to qualified subscribers. For others, annual Subscription Rates in U.S. funds are: $80 (U.S. and Canada), $145 (all other countries). Single copy price is $8.50. All subscription and single copy orders or inquiries should be directed to Printed Circuit Design & Fab/Circuits Assembly , PO Box 470 Canton, GA 30169, email subscriptions@upmediagroup.com. Photocopies and issues on Microfilm/Microfiche (16mm, 33mm or 105mm) are available from University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, Telephone 313-761-4600.

Printed Circuit Design & Fab/Circuits Assembly is published monthly by UP Media Group Inc., PO Box 470 Canton, GA 30169. ISSN 1939-5442. GST 124513185/ Agreement #1419617.

Periodicals postage paid at Canton/Ball Ground, GA, and additional mailing offices. © 2020, UP Media Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction of material appearing in Printed Circuit Design & Fab/Circuits Assembly is forbidden without written permission.

Postmaster: Send address changes to
Printed Circuit Design & Fab/Circuits Assembly, PO Box 470 Canton, GA 30169.

UP Media Group logo
SEMICON West 2020 advertisement
Caveat Lector
Mike Buetow Editor in Chief Image
mike
buetow
editor-
in-chief
Bench Gets Vertical
H

ow many greenfield plants do you think have been built in the US in the past 10 years?

I can think of three, and two of them were designed and built by the same person and corporate parent. There’s Whelen Engineering, the OEM that opened a captive shop in 2015. The brains behind that, Alex Stępiński, then designed and built GreenSource Fabrication, which launched in 2018. And perhaps we can count TTM’s new plant in Chippewa Falls, built in a converted 20-year-old, 40,000-sq. ft. warehouse and officially opened last winter.

Now we can add one more to the list. More surprising, an EMS company built it.

Last month Benchmark Electronics opened the doors to its 122,000 sq. ft. state-of-the-art factory in Phoenix. The company, the fifth largest EMS in the US and 18th in the world according to the CIRCUITS ASSEMBLY Top 50, is known for putting components on boards, not making the substrates themselves. The new venture is a leap of faith, buoyed by the desire to control the product development from end to end.

Circuits Assembly Advertisement
Around the World
PCDF People
AIM Electronics named Lenny Roach to engineering sales.

Lenthor Engineering named Dale Smith chief technology officer. He has years of hands-on experience in advanced rigid-flex and flex processing technology and techniques, the past five at DuPont.

Mike Flatt, former chairman of Continental Circuits, has passed away at 81.

Socrates Gonis Headshot
Ventec named Socrates Gonis OEM marketing manager for the US West Coast. He has more than 25 years’ experience in electronics, most recently as a sales engineer with Rogers.
PCDF Briefs
KLA formed a new business group from its ICOS, Orbotech and SPTS Technologies units.

National Instruments signed a definitive agreement to acquire OptimalPlus, a global data analytics software company, in a deal valued at $365 million.

Price Circuits installed a Miva 2025L Di Trio LDI.

Production has begun at Schweizer Electronic’s new EUR100 million ($113.4 million) printed circuit board plant in Jiangsu province. The Jintan plant, located about 200km east of Shanghai, has a high level of machine integration and automation, the firm said. Once complete, the Schramberg, Germany-based fabricator’s new site will have a capacity of over 7,000 sq. m. per day, roughly five times that of the German plant.

Around the World
CA People
Tim O’Neill headshot
AIM Solder named Tim O’Neill director of product management. He has been with Aim for nearly 23 years in a variety of technical marketing and business development positions.
Bernd Fruehwald headshot
Apex Tool Group promoted Bernd Fruehwald to senior vice president and president of its Global Power Tools business. He joined in 2014 as general manager, Weller Tools and most recently served as vice president and president, EMEA and ANZ.
Mike Dometrovich headshot
Libra Industries added Mike Dometrovich to its independent manufacturers’ representative team. He has been in the manufacturing industry for more than 36 years.
Beth Silvia headshot
MicroCare named Beth Silvia assistant corporate controller, responsible for management of the company’s accounting and finance functions in the United States and all its foreign subsidiaries.
Around the World
Hensoldt, Nano Dimension 3-D Print 10-Layer PCB
MUNICH – Using a newly developed dielectric polymer ink and conductive ink from Nano Dimension, Hensoldt succeeded in using a 3-D printer to assemble a 10-layer PCB that carries high-performance electronic structures soldered to both outer sides.

“Military sensor solutions require performance and reliability levels far above those of commercial components,” said Thomas Müller, CEO, Hensoldt. “To have high-density components quickly available with reduced effort by means of 3-D printing gives us a competitive edge in the development process of such high-end electronic systems.”

“Nano Dimension’s relationship with Hensoldt is the type of partnership with customers we are striving for,” said Yoav Stern, president and CEO, Nano Dimension. “Working together and learning from Hensoldt led us to reach a first-of-its-kind in-depth knowledge of polymer materials applications. Additionally, it guided us in the development of Hi-PEDs (high-performance electronic devices) that create competitive edges by enabling unique implementations with shortest time to market.”

Hensoldt has used Nano Dimension’s DragonFly 3-D printing system since 2016. Last year, Hensoldt implemented DragonFly Lights-Out Digital Manufacturing printing technology. (CD)

Around the World
Altium’s Latest Cloud Collaboration Platform Links ECAD and MCAD
SAN DIEGO – Two years after it was teased at a series of worldwide seminars with key customers and media, Altium’s cloud platform for PCB design has begun to reach the potential the ECAD company promised.

The latest update to Altium 365 now allows collaboration among PCB designers, mechanical designers, part suppliers and manufacturers. And Altium 365 provides a built-in co-designer capability that provides native integration with a trio of MCAD platforms: PTC Creo, Dassault SolidWorks and Autodesk Inventor.

According to Leigh Gawne, chief software architect, 365 provides a “full-on collaboration in that actual PCBs and components can be changed. The MCAD user can place and move an electrical part, define the PCB, and push the (update) to the PCB engineer.”

“ECAD has really been confined to a desktop. With Altium 365, we are taking it off the desktop. Anyone with a web browser is now able to view and interact and collaborate on these designs. For those who want to open a schematic and cross-probe to a net on a PCB or a component in a 3-D rendering of the board, it doesn’t require this heavyweight software to be installed. For people who want to consume and inspect and interact, this is possible anywhere, on any device, just through a browser.”

Mirtec advertisement
Around the World
CA Briefs

Ability Tec has relocated to a new purpose-built EMS facility in Burk, UK.

Actia Electronics installed a Takaya APT-1600FD-A flying probe tester.

ALLPCB opened a self-operated SMT factory in Guangde, Anhui Province, China.

Apple is examining a proposal to shift nearly one-fifth of its production capacity from China to India, ramp up its local manufacturing capabilities through its contract manufacturers and achieve $40 billion worth of production over the next five years, The Economic Times reported.

Big Ass Fans installed a Hentec Industries / RPS Automation Vector 300 selective soldering machine, its third.

MicroCare has been acquired by Capital Partners in partnership with senior management. COO Tom Tattersall will assume the role of CEO.

Panasonic said that next year it will move its Thai-based production of white goods to Vietnam, laying off some 800 workers.

Phoenix Systems installed a Unicomp AX-8200HR x-ray machine.

Pillarhouse appointed Performance Technologies Group to spearhead sales in Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, DC.

Rocket EMS added conformal coating services.

Around the World
Siemens Updates Data Exchange Format for Digital Thread
PLANO, TX – Siemens expanded its ODB++ data structure for transferring PCB designs into fabrication, assembly and test with open data formats for the digital thread.

ODB++Process data exchange format, previously known as OPM, helps enable the open exchange of process engineering information between disparate machines, software vendors, and standalone processes.

This free data exchange format helps users transfer machine programs from one machine type to another, such as a target machine from a different vendor or a machine on a different platform. ODB++Process provides the open exchange of process engineering information, which then converts the data for immediate use on any production machine or workstation.

“By using a single assembly format file output like ODB++Process, which standardizes machine package libraries with vShapes across the entire production line, Koh Young is able to minimize program variations between machines like inspection and mounters,” said JD Shin, chief sales officer for Koh Young. “The enhanced approach to programming reduces human error and variation and significantly reduces the NPI programming cycle time. What’s more, the single file assembly format output like ODB++Process is machine agnostic and easily enables moving production assembly data and process requirements between lines – and more importantly factories across the world.”

Around the World
3 Materials Suppliers Awarded US Patent for Solder Alloy
WATERBURY, CT – Three suppliers in electronics assembly materials received notice the US Patent and Trademark Office has issued a patent for their popular lead-free solder alloy formulation. The patent was granted an extended expiration to Jun. 11, 2029.

MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions, Henkel and Heraeus developed the Pb-free solder alloy known as Innolot and Loctite 90ISC for harsh environment electronics applications. The alloy is designed to tolerate the demands of high-temperature applications, while being solderable at standard Pb-free process temperatures.

“The issuing of this patent is of strategic and commercial importance,” said Tom Hunsinger, vice president of marketing, MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions. “Coupled with patent protection in Europe and Japan, this will help drive new business opportunities not only in automotive but in other markets with harsh environment challenges.” (CD)

APCT Advertisement
Around the World
UL Debuts Supplier Cyber Trustworthiness Rating Program
NORTHBROOK, IL – UL has rolled out a new assessment program to help organizations minimize supply chain cybersecurity risk by focusing on the trustworthiness of suppliers’ security practices.

UL Supplier Cyber Trust Level analyzes suppliers’ security practices across multiple trust categories, resulting in a documented supplier trust level rating. This rating demonstrates the trustworthiness of a supplier’s security practices across the software and hardware development lifecycle, hosted systems, information management systems and their third-party management.

UL Supplier Cyber Trust Level assessment enables a holistic view of supplier’s security posture, while providing a consistent evaluation for organizations of the cybersecurity posture from supplier to supplier.

“Cybersecurity for connected technologies is a major risk that impacts manufacturers, service providers, suppliers and end product ecosystems,” said Isabelle Noblanc, global vice president and general manager, Identity Management and Security division, UL. “A supplier’s security-oriented culture, security processes and practices and secure R&D environments are all critical when validating supplier security. UL understands this significance and continues to help organizations with IoT cybersecurity offerings that address end products, ecosystems and now – with the launch of our Supplier Cyber Trust Level – supply chains.”

Around the World
SigmaTron to Merge with Pet Tech OEM
ELK GROVE VILLAGE, IL – SigmaTron and pet tech company Wagz have executed a letter of intent to merge in an all-stock deal. The deal calls for SigmaTron to issue approximately 2.27 million new shares of stock, giving Wagz shareholders approximately one-third of the combined company.

The deal is expected to close by the end of August, subject to a material definitive agreement and SigmaTron’s raising of $7.5 million in additional capital that it projects will be needed for the expanded operations.

Upon completion, Wagz will be a standalone operation of SigmaTron.

For the past two years Wagz has outsourced part of its product portfolio to SigmaTron.

“Over the last two years, we have become immersed in the pet tech market with Wagz as our customer,” said Gary R. Fairhead, president and CEO, SigmaTron. “We have been impressed with the growth of the pet sector, and data show it is practically recession-proof. Recent reports indicate pet ownership during Covid-19 has increased, accelerating what was already a very strong market. Wagz would benefit from our ability to provide world-class manufacturing services through our global footprint and supply chain, and SigmaTron would benefit from new high-margin recurring revenue.” (CD)

Market Watch
EDITED by CHELSEY DRYSDALE
The Pandemic Strikes

Trends in the U.S. electronics equipment market (shipments only).

%CHANGE
FEB.
MAR.
APR.
YTD%
Computers and electronics products
0.2
-0.7
0.6
1.3
Computers
-2.3
-4.1
-0.5
-12.7
Storage devices
-2.7
0.2
-1.8
61.0
Other peripheral equipment
-2.7
-3.2
0.0
3.1
Nondefense communications equipment
0.2
2.9
-0.3
6.4
Defense communications equipment
4.5
0.4
2.7
-4.7
A/V equipment
-5.6
-8.4
4.6
-18.4
Components1
0.7
-0.9
1.8
9.0
Nondefense search and navigation equipment
-1.8
-1.3
-0.3
-5.0
Defense search and navigation equipment
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.0
Medical, measurement and control
0.2
-0.9
-0.7
-3.6
rRevised. *Preliminary. 1Includes semiconductors. Seasonally adjusted. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, June 3, 2020
ROI
Getting the Team Back Together
It’s time to work with your employees toward reopening our doors to the world.
As the second half of this most extraordinary year unfolds, I keep thinking of all the things I had planned, hoped or expected to accomplish during the first half that now are on the overly long “to do” list. As we try to get back in the proverbial saddle and focus on what we can do within the confines of various local and national government pandemic restrictions and reopening timelines, my priorities are reengaging with employees, customers, suppliers and industry events.

Each industry and company has issues to work through, whether it is bringing back furloughed or terminated staff, or just figuring out whether and how to integrate work-from-home into a long-term employment scenario. In all cases, employee reentry must be dealt with quickly to rebuild the sense of corporate community and possibly build an even greater sense of team.

People by nature want to be with other people. Collaboration requires a good smattering of face-to-face time. While Zoom, GoToMeeting and WebEx will continue to assume a bigger place in the business interaction mix, long-term success requires people being together at least some of the time. While we will reluctantly continue social distancing and wearing face masks at times, corporate management’s number one challenge is how to bring the team together and get back to a more normal work environment.

Board Buying
What is Your PCB Pricing Game Plan?
Being ready to pivot offers flexibility and keeps vendors honest.
What is your company’s PCB buying strategy as we emerge from the confines of the Covid-19 pandemic shutdown? Do you have one?

Those responsible for corporate procurement need to understand supplier diversification is the key to remaining competitive in this challenging economy. Yet, many OEMs and EMS companies have invested too much of their annual PCB spend with only one vendor. That could prove to be a costly mistake.

I understand and appreciate vendor loyalty, but are you leveraging your vendor, or are you being leveraged by your vendor?

The truth is companies that stick with this one-vendor approach will have a harder time remaining competitive in the post-pandemic world. “We have used this vendor for years” is not a viable strategy.

Charles Pfeil Advertisement
DESIGNER’S NOTEBOOK
Place and Route: The Art of PCB Design
Lessons learned the hard way.
I still remember a day back in the late ’80s when an electrical engineer invited me into his office and showed me a CAD PCB layout on his monitor. How cool would it be to do that? Well, now I know. Pretty cool, but frustrating at times as well. Placing and routing are the meat and potatoes of PCB design. (If you don’t like “meat,” think of your own metaphor.) There are other things to do, but this is what holds it all together.

The basic framework is built around two disciplines: mechanical and electrical engineering. The two main features are the components and, of course, the board. An intelligent set of library parts is essential to getting the placement off to a good start. Over the years, schematic capture has shifted from the PCB designer’s hands to those of the EE.

The schematic and component libraries are often outsourced or created by an in-house specialist. The goal in the larger outfits is to allow the PCB designer to focus on placement and routing. Startups will put more hats on your head. Either way, our time is a precious commodity not to be wasted.

Material Gains
Coping with the March of Technology
And matching materials to the equipment that will advance our world.
Whatever we may learn about the origins of Covid-19, and however inconclusive the information may be, we can be almost certain it had nothing to do with radio waves. I’m sure I’m not alone in feeling disappointed about the attacks made on mobile phone masts during this crisis, carried out in the misguided belief that this kind of vandalism can halt the virus.

Fortunately, instances of such extreme technophobia have been few. It seems every new technology wins vocal detractors, however beneficial its effect on peoples’ lives. In recent years, our industry has had to deal with claims about grisly health risks associated with mobile phones, the effects of “wind turbine syndrome,” and the evil propagated by 5G.

Advanced technologies will hold the key to our defense against Covid-19. We will need the knowhow of pharmaceutical labs to create an effective and practicable vaccine, and engineering skills to develop new respirator designs better adapted to the needs of coronavirus patients than are conventional ventilators or CPAP devices. Moreover, effective virucides will be needed to enhance cleaning in places such as hospitals, waiting rooms, factories, warehouses, public transport vehicles, and aircraft. Irradiating at-risk areas using germicidal UV-C lamps could be an option and could easily be automated using mobile robots.

PCB2DAY advertisement
MATERIAL MATTERS
The No. 1 Weapon Against Crosstalk
Trace separation; length parallelism; stackup: Does one stand out?
It’s been some time since I’ve seen an article on crosstalk, so I decided to take the opportunity to walk through the subject in a soup-to-nuts overview for those in the PCB design community who may be interested in why crosstalk-savvy PCB designers and hardware engineers use various design rules for controlling crosstalk. In the process of doing so, we’ll identify which design tweaks provide the most leverage for controlling far-end crosstalk.

Crosstalk is unwanted noise generated between signals. It occurs when two or more nets on a PCB are coupled to each other electromagnetically, (even though conductively they are not connected at all). Such coupling can arise any time two nets run next to each other for any significant length. When a signal is driven on one of the lines, the electric and magnetic fields it generates cause an unexpected signal to also appear on the nearby line, as shown in FIGURE 1.

A number of factors combine to create an unwanted crosstalk signal: the length over which the traces are coupled, the distance between the traces, their positions in the PCB stackup, what driver ICs are used on both the “aggressor” and the “victim” lines, whether the lines are terminated, and so forth.

The DIGITAL Route
An Expectation of Collaboration
The PCEA and SMTA find common ground.

This month, I share updates on the PCEA website and reports on some inspiring collaboration taking place between the PCEA and a well-known industry organization that appears to have a high potential for synergy for all engaged.

I’m always happy to mention that PCEA Chairman Steph Chavez has prepared a message as well, where he provides an overview of his take on adapting to the new normal by doing more with less.

Last, we are not able to provide any reports on local chapter activities due to continued social distancing requirements. However, we will share our most updated list of professional development opportunities and events, which we hope you might find useful. As always, stay tuned for more updates.

PCEA Updates

Words ending in “ation” can affect our mission. Stay positive!

Throughout the week, I lap up a lot of evening news. Like you, I’m tired of so many negative news reports about “frustration in the nation regarding the presentation of some information regarding an observation that it is a violation to meet together in an organization without six feet of separation until after there is an indication of a successful vaccination declaration.” In effect, I’ve become oversensitized to words ending in “ation.” They cause me to itch. But a brief conversation I had with PCEA Chairman Steph Chavez quickly desensitized me to these “ation” words.

Signal Integrity
The Evolution of FOUR-LAYER Printed Circuit Boards
And why not to cut the ground or Vdd plane. by LEE RITCHEY

Speculation abounds over what a designer should do when making the stackup and design rules for a four-layer PCB. Much of this speculation or rules-of-thumb came about when those not familiar with the reasons for arranging the layers in a four-layer PCB tried to explain what they saw or heard. This article explains how four-layer PCBs came into existence and guides readers on how to create a set of design rules and stackup that results in a solid, functional design with minimum constraints.

Early logic designs were done with two layers. Power was distributed using traces to connect all the power and ground pins to the power supply rails. Logic devices were packaged in 14- and 16-lead dual inline packages (DIPs). FIGURE 1 is an example of such a two-layer logic design. Logic speeds were slow enough that connecting power with traces instead of planes was “good enough.” Figure 1 is a design the author did using Bishop Graphics tape to create the artwork in the early 1970s.

As logic speeds (clock rates and rise times) became faster, it was not possible to achieve stable logic operation with such a high inductance power distribution network. To go up the speed curve, it was necessary to add two power planes: one for Vdd and one for ground. For the planes to do their job, they needed to be intact. As a result, these planes were placed in the middle of the PCB, yielding a stackup like that shown in FIGURE 2. (If the planes were on the outer layers, they would be interrupted by component mounting structures and cease to function properly as planes.) Until recently, virtually all PC motherboards and motherboards for gaming consoles were built to this stackup.

PCB West 2020
Conference: September 8 – 11
Exhibition: Wednesday, September 9
See you in September!
  • More than 35 sessions, plus 11 free classes!
  • All the hot topics, including grounding, power distribution, signal integrity, flex circuits, and RF circuits
  • Training for designers, fabricators and assemblers, from novice to pro
  • Rick Hartley and Lee Ritchey
  • Professional Development Certificates
  • One-day FREE Expo with 100+ leading suppliers
PCbwest.com
SANTA CLARA CONVENTION CENTER, CA
Connecting Design to Fab to Assembly
Conference: September 8 – 11
Exhibition: Wednesday, September 9
Who’s Exhibiting

Accurate Circuit Engineering

Aculon, Inc.

Advanced Assembly

Advanced Circuits

AGC Chemicals Americas, Inc.

AGC Nelco America Inc.

All Flex Flexible Circuits & Heaters

Altium LLC

American Standard Circuits, Inc.

APCT

Arlon EMD Specialty

Bay Area Circuits, Inc.

Beta LAYOUT

Bittele Electronics Inc.

Bowman XRF

Cadence Design Systems

Cicor Group

Clear Blue Engineering

dalTools

Dino-Lite Scopes (Big C)

DownStream Technologies, Inc.

DuPont

DYCONEX AG

Dynamic Electronics Co., Ltd.

Elgris Technologies, Inc.

Elsyca

EMA Design Automation

EM Solutions Inc.

Firan Technology Group – FTG

Fischer Technology, Inc.

Flex lnterconnect Technologies

Flexible Circuit Technologies

Freedom CAD Services, Inc.

Fujipoly America

Goal Searchers Co., LTD Zhuhai

Green Circuits

GS Swiss PCB AG

GTS Flexible Materials Ltd.

HIE Display Limited

HSIO/lronwood

ICAPE Group

lmagineering, Inc.

Integrated Technology Ltd. (ITL Circuits)

IPC-2581 Consortium

Isola

JetPCB USA

JS Electronic Co. Ltd.

Kinwong Electronic Co., Ltd.

Krypton Solutions

Kyocera International, Inc.

Leader Tech, Inc.

LPKF Laser & Electronics

Medcadtron GmbH

Mentor, A Siemens Business

MicroConnex

Minco Products, Inc.

Multek Technologies, Inc.

MV Circuit Technology Co., Ltd.

MVINIX Corporation

NTS

Oak-Mitsui Technologies LLC

Ohmega Technologies, Inc.

Oki Printed Circuits Co., Inc.

Optiprint AG

Panasonic Electronic Materials

PCB Power Inc.

PFC Flexible Circuits Limited

Polar Instruments, Inc.

Polyonics

Printed Circuits

Pulsonix PCB Design Software

Quadcept

RelianceCM

Risho

Rogers Corporation

Royal Circuits

San Diego PCB Design

San-ei Kagaku Co., Ltd.

Sanmina Corporation

Screaming Circuits

SEP Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Danyu Electronics Co. Ltd.

Shenzhen JDB Technology Co., Ltd.

Shin Yi PCB Co., Ltd.

Sierra Circuits, Inc.

Slingshot Assembly

Somacis Inc.

Summit Interconnect

Sunshine Global Circuits

Sunstone Circuits

SVTronics, Inc.

Taiyo America Inc.

Tempo Automation

Ticer Technologies

Ultra Librarian

Varioprint AG

Vayo Technology

Ventec International Group

Victory GiantTechnology (Huizhou) Co., Ltd.

VYCOM Global Sources Ltd.

Xiamen Bolian Tech. Co., Ltd.

Zuken USA Inc.

PCbwest.com
SANTA CLARA CONVENTION CENTER, CA
PCB West 2020
Conference: September 8 – 11
Exhibition: Wednesday, September 9
See you in September!
  • More than 35 sessions, plus 11 free classes!
  • All the hot topics, including grounding, power distribution, signal integrity, flex circuits, and RF circuits
  • Training for designers, fabricators and assemblers, from novice to pro
  • Rick Hartley and Lee Ritchey
  • Professional Development Certificates
  • One-day FREE Expo with 100+ leading suppliers
PCbwest.com
SANTA CLARA CONVENTION CENTER, CA
Connecting Design to Fab to Assembly
Conference: September 8 – 11
Exhibition: Wednesday, September 9
Who’s Exhibiting

Accurate Circuit Engineering

Aculon, Inc.

Advanced Assembly

Advanced Circuits

AGC Chemicals Americas, Inc.

AGC Nelco America Inc.

All Flex Flexible Circuits & Heaters

Altium LLC

American Standard Circuits, Inc.

APCT

Arlon EMD Specialty

Bay Area Circuits, Inc.

Beta LAYOUT

Bittele Electronics Inc.

Bowman XRF

Cadence Design Systems

Cicor Group

Clear Blue Engineering

dalTools

Dino-Lite Scopes (Big C)

DownStream Technologies, Inc.

DuPont

DYCONEX AG

Dynamic Electronics Co., Ltd.

Elgris Technologies, Inc.

Elsyca

EMA Design Automation

EM Solutions Inc.

Firan Technology Group – FTG

Fischer Technology, Inc.

Flex lnterconnect Technologies

Flexible Circuit Technologies

Freedom CAD Services, Inc.

Fujipoly America

Goal Searchers Co., LTD Zhuhai

Green Circuits

GS Swiss PCB AG

GTS Flexible Materials Ltd.

HIE Display Limited

HSIO/lronwood

ICAPE Group

lmagineering, Inc.

Integrated Technology Ltd. (ITL Circuits)

IPC-2581 Consortium

Isola

JetPCB USA

JS Electronic Co. Ltd.

Kinwong Electronic Co., Ltd.

Krypton Solutions

Kyocera International, Inc.

Leader Tech, Inc.

LPKF Laser & Electronics

Medcadtron GmbH

Mentor, A Siemens Business

MicroConnex

Minco Products, Inc.

Multek Technologies, Inc.

MV Circuit Technology Co., Ltd.

MVINIX Corporation

NTS

Oak-Mitsui Technologies LLC

Ohmega Technologies, Inc.

Oki Printed Circuits Co., Inc.

Optiprint AG

Panasonic Electronic Materials

PCB Power Inc.

PFC Flexible Circuits Limited

Polar Instruments, Inc.

Polyonics

Printed Circuits

Pulsonix PCB Design Software

Quadcept

RelianceCM

Risho

Rogers Corporation

Royal Circuits

San Diego PCB Design

San-ei Kagaku Co., Ltd.

Sanmina Corporation

Screaming Circuits

SEP Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Danyu Electronics Co. Ltd.

Shenzhen JDB Technology Co., Ltd.

Shin Yi PCB Co., Ltd.

Sierra Circuits, Inc.

Slingshot Assembly

Somacis Inc.

Summit Interconnect

Sunshine Global Circuits

Sunstone Circuits

SVTronics, Inc.

Taiyo America Inc.

Tempo Automation

Ticer Technologies

Ultra Librarian

Varioprint AG

Vayo Technology

Ventec International Group

Victory GiantTechnology (Huizhou) Co., Ltd.

VYCOM Global Sources Ltd.

Xiamen Bolian Tech. Co., Ltd.

Zuken USA Inc.

PCbwest.com
SANTA CLARA CONVENTION CENTER, CA
PCB Layout
DIFFERENTIAL SIGNAL Design Rules – Or Not
A common assumption is differential signals are “equal and opposite.” Is it true? by DOUGLAS G. BROOKS, PH.D.

Periodically, questions about differential trace design rules come up. There is always confusion over whether it is necessary to route differential traces close together, whether a plane needs to be underneath differential traces, or whether to consider differential impedance design rules with differential traces. In one sense, the answers to these questions are difficult, but in another sense they are simple. In fact, if we are not concerned about signal integrity issues, there are no design rules at all. Here is my way of trying to clarify things.

First, what are differential signals, and why are they different? FIGURE 1 illustrates a single (sometimes referred to as a single-ended) trace connecting a driver and a receiver (a) and a differential trace pair (b). Let’s say the signal amplitude (with respect to the reference voltage) in Figure 1a is V = +1. In Figure 1b, there are two signals, V+ = +1 and V- = -1. What the receiver in Figure 2 sees is the difference between these two signals, V+ – V- = +1 – (-1) = +2. The first, and most obvious, difference between the two configurations is that differential signals offer twice the signal level to the receiver. Usually, this translates into twice the signal-to-noise (S/N) level. This is a clear advantage over the single-ended case, and is the primary advantage of differential signals, especially when signal levels are low (as with many sensors).

iNEMI Roadmap
IoT Suffers from a Lack of STANDARDS
What the electronics industry must do to change that. by JOANNE FRIEDMAN, PH.D., and BARBARA GOLDSTEIN
Ed.: This is the seventh of an occasional series by the authors of the 2019 iNEMI Roadmap. This information is excerpted from the roadmap, available from iNEMI (inemi.org/2019-roadmap-overview).

To realize the benefits and potential of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) or move toward Industry 4.0, the industry must overcome several challenges ranging from securing the factory equipment used to produce secure IoT-ready products to defining the cobotic dialogue so collaboration between humans and machines can be used to drive innovation, while providing efficiencies with minimal workforce displacement in this industry and those of its customers.

Aside from technical issues, ethical, geopolitical, economic and regulatory issues may affect the current and future state of the industry.

Hackers have already wreaked havoc by infiltrating connected IoT devices. Paradoxically, they usually aren’t targeting device owners, who often remain unaware of security breaches. Instead, the hackers may simply use IoT devices as starting points for attacks directed against another target. For instance, the 2016 Mirai attack, which used IoT devices to launch a distributed denial of services against gaming servers, ended up attacking the Internet infrastructure, causing shutdowns across Europe and North America that resulted in significant economic damage. As the IoT base continues to show double-digit growth rates, security is simultaneously a major industry challenge and a significant opportunity.

Nordson March Advertisement
Factory Layout
PRODUCTION AREA Reorganization Pays Many Dividends
A new layout marries staff resources to immediate demand.
by CLINT HANSON
In the fourth quarter 2019, the team at Milwaukee Electronics’ headquarters began looking at ways to improve throughput by eliminating customer-focused cells and enhancing worker responsibilities. The goal was to make it easier to shift cross-trained employees among work cells to support variances in demand.

The electronics manufacturing services (EMS) facility was divided into five areas, each headed by a supervisor with direct responsibility for the team in that area. This put resource allocation in the hands of the people who work with those resources. Instead of dedicating space and team members to specific customers, each supervisor now has the flexibility to move their team around based on that day’s demand. They can also request additional training for any team member if they feel additional skills are necessary. Additionally, one supervisor was assigned as an assistant to the production manager. A production manager has finite bandwidth. The assignment of a roving supervisor to address day-to-day challenges helps ensure tactical issues don’t sidetrack the production manager from focusing on more strategic issues.

Machine Interfaces
MES-Based PROCESS CONTROL of Test Machines Using IPC-CFX
Lights-out manufacturing mandates a standard communication protocol. by RANKO VUJOSEVIC, PHD., and MATTHEW FISCHER
Electronics assemblers often assume an MES solution is all they need to gain complete control of all processes and traceability for SMT, manual assembly, box build, test, and rework processes. But even if an MES solution provides interfaces to a wide range of equipment, the plant needs to purchase interface options for the equipment. Often, the investment is so large, they choose not to do it. A vendor’s proprietary interface to control and collect data from their machine in real-time can cost up to $5,000/machine. For a plant with 50 machines that need such interfaces, that is a significant investment that often exceeds the cost of the entire MES solution.

For companies that develop and sell MES, developing proprietary machine interfaces is a major resource, cost and time expense. Doing so involves constant updates and attempts to work with companies that often perceive MES vendors as competitors and are not willing to share interface information and data. Electronics manufacturers evaluate machines more and more on the type of communication interface they provide and their additional cost, and often buy machines from vendors that do not charge extra for communication interfaces. A standard interface always has been needed. Attempts to create one failed because of shortsighted interests of equipment vendors and a misunderstanding of the benefits to be gained from a standard interface.

AIM Global Solder Solutions Advertisement
PCB Podcast advertisement
IEEC
State-of-the-Art Technology Flashes
Updates in silicon and electronics technology.
Ed.: This is a special feature courtesy of Binghamton University.
Photovoltaic cell works at night. University of California researchers have developed a photovoltaic cell that can function at night. The cell can generate up to 50W/sq. m. at night, about 25% of what conventional solar cells generate in daytime. They currently are improving the output power and efficiency of the devices. The cell operates in reverse to a normal solar cell. An object that is hot compared to its surroundings will radiate heat as infrared light. The device can work during the day by blocking direct sunlight. Hence, this new solar cell could potentially operate around the clock. (IEEC file #11548, Science Daily, 1/29/20)

“Stretchy battery” for wearables. Researchers at Stanford University have developed a stretchy battery useful for wearable electronics. The battery can be stretched to twice its original length without any power loss. The polymers in lithium-ion batteries that conduct negative ions toward the battery’s positive pole are in the form of gels housed in a rigid casing. By providing a power source that could stretch and bend, wearable electronics can be more comfortable. (IEEC file #11547, Electronics Weekly, 1/29/20)

GETTING LEAN
Lean and Covid-19 Supply-Chain Challenges
System strategies and the visual factory can handle rapid changes in demand.
Supply-chain disruption and Lean philosophy rarely go hand-in-hand. In some cases, however, systems created to support Lean manufacturing or principles themselves help mitigate the chaos the pandemic has created in the global supply chain.

SigmaTron has operations in the US, Mexico, China and Vietnam. As a result, we had a bird’s-eye view of the initial impact on manufacturing operations in China and used that as a roadmap for preparing operations in other locations for disruption, along with best in-plant practices for disease mitigation. While the ways different jurisdictions reacted to Covid-19 varied, the issues were somewhat similar. This column looks at some lessons learned in that process from this contract manufacturer’s perspective.

There was a four-to-eight week gap in component supplies from China due to the national shutdown in late January/early February. But, the combination of inventory produced/stored in anticipation of the normal Lunar New Year shutdown, combined with decreased demand as the virus disrupted production outside of China, enabled most China component manufacturers to catch up. Consequently, the shortages present in previous unanticipated supply disruptions were not as severe this time. That said, some spot shortages are developing as the US Defense Production Act constrains components needed for essential products such as ventilators.

SMTA International advertisement
tech tips
Why Was My PCB Job Put on Hold?
A walkthrough shows why you can’t “guess” success.
When a customer learns their much-needed PCB job has inexplicably gone into the dreaded “hold” basket, the instinctive response is indignation. Let’s take a moment to examine the possible reasons. After all, the fabricator doesn’t want an unhappy customer, nor a pause in work volume. Yet, a great deal of precise data is needed to build a printed circuit board. As layer count and complexity increase, so does the volume of correct information needed by the fabricator to properly manufacture the job. If some necessary data are missing, the CAM operator will hand the file back to sales to sort out the problems.

The one steadfast rule all PCB manufacturing facilities hold dear is “we don’t guess.” Never. Break that rule and the consequences will bite back hard. To ensure no one is guessing, every question must be answered. If you failed to specify a tolerance on a set of holes, the job will go on temporary hold until the CAM operator can get a suitable answer. If you have an electrical short between ground power layers due to a misplaced via, the job goes back to sales to sort out. When a job is on hold for a serious problem, the result can be days of delay. If there are one or two small issues, however, in many instances the CAM operator or sales will call and sort it out. They might be able to move a trace or two to prevent a short, for example, or change a pad size to correct a problem with an annual ring that is too small. However, the CAM operator must meet a quota of jobs each day to keep the manufacturing facility fully loaded. They do not have an abundance of time to fix a multitude of problems in an individual customer’s data. Other jobs are waiting! In that case, the CAM operator hands the file back to sales to reject the data. The customer can then fix it and resubmit it through the whole process of price quote, DRC (design rule check) and setup.

Directory of EMS Companies advertisement
Nepcon advertisement
SEEING IS BELIEVING
A Sudden Captive’s Journal
So rampant was coronavirus, it even infected accounting systems.
Day 1: Today the authorities announced local shelter-in-place restrictions. All employees of nonessential businesses must stay home or be subject to fines if caught at the workplace. What to do? Set priorities: define whether we are essential and be prepared to back it up if we are. There is no Essential Business Department in California, like the DMV, to which one can apply and get a Certification of Essentiality. No tests one takes. It depends on one’s OEM customers and flows down to their suppliers. For those of us not named Elon Musk, we are not a law unto ourselves.

Day 2: Met with the crew. Game plan time. Henceforth, the old guys (the “over 60s”) will stay home. That includes (gulp) me. Aging and mortality in one poignant bite. A small crew will remain at our facility, handling day-to-day essential business. (In the preceding 24 hours, we established our corporate essential bonafides.) Headcount will fluctuate daily, depending on happenings. Some will stay home today; others will do likewise tomorrow. I stay home every day pondering the Darwinian way of the world, and my humbling new lot in life as a high medical risk individual. Regardless of work site, all employees will continue to be paid for the foreseeable future. As if we can foresee it. No one will burn PTO if they must stay home. Engineering work will be conducted from home to the extent possible. No onsite customer visits will be allowed until further notice. Living a paradox: keeping it all together, while dispersed. Here we are.

defect of the month
Component Body Lifting
Get the right stencil for the job.
THIS MONTH WE illustrate an example of what appears at first glance to be poor lead solderability. When examined, however, it is a combination of component and pad design.

Figure 1 shows the lead to be floating in the solder joint, suggesting poor wetting. When we examine the component lead and plastic body, however, the lead is not parallel, so it always sits off the pad surface, even if perfectly soldered. The lead sits in a cavity in the component body to maintain its position. But with the size of the pad used in the design and a full solder paste print, the component body will always lift.

To improve the component, the position of the pin should be parallel with the body. Ideally the opening of the body of the lead should be wider or angled to permit solder to wet without lifting the part. A simple shop-floor fix is to order another stencil and reduce the width of the paste print, decreasing the lift during reflow.

PCB Update advertisement
Off The Shelf
Off The Shelf
Machines Materials Tools Systems Software
VPI Optical Link simulation
Design Parameter Simulation
VPI Optical Link simulation workflow capability connects PathWave Advanced Design System with VPI Design Suite from VPIphotonics. Predicts signal integrity of electrical-optical-electrical data links. Simulates and optimizes design parameters concurrently in electrical and optical domains. Investigates electrical channel design, including trace routing and design of PCB vias.
Keysight Technologies
EasyRouter Plug & Play depaneler
PCB Router
EasyRouter Plug & Play depaneler comes with cables, hoses, instruction video and 10-step setup guide. For offline use. Comes with milling tool featuring speed up to 60mm/s for top routing of PCBs. Electrical fixture ID, detection of correct position before placement on milling fixture pins and automatic bit clamping/unclamping are optional. Optional acquisition system for production and operation data to record depaneling procedures.
IPTE
ThermaWick THJP thermal jumper chip
SMT Jumper Chip
ThermaWick THJP thermal jumper chip transfers heat from electrically isolated components by providing a thermal conductive pathway to ground plane or common heatsink. Features aluminum nitride substrate with 170W/m°K thermal conductivity. Reportedly reduces temp. of connected components more than 25%. Capacitance down to 0.07pF. Comes in case sizes from 0603 to 2512.
Vishay Intertechnology
Off The Shelf
Off The Shelf
Machines Materials Tools Systems Software
GT90 and GT120
Inductive Soldering Stations
GT90 and GT120 use inductive heating technology and have adjustable temperature. GT90 single-port soldering station uses 90W power supply and performance vs. 75-120W systems. Compatible with ultrafine and standard tips. Is for single iron applications on production line. GT120 single-port soldering station uses 120W power supply and reportedly offers performance equivalent to 250W systems. Compatible with ultrafine, standard and high thermal demand tips; is for any single iron soldering application. External power supply.
Metcal
TR7007DQ Plus
3-D SPI
TR7007DQ Plus comes with improved motion controller (EtherCat) and enhanced 2-D light module. Motion controller achieves real-time measurements and processing on the fly, while light module realizes higher uniformity inspection, less shadow, and improved imaging. Inspects low solder bridges and compensate board warpage for eliminating local PCB deformation. Is equipped with up to four projectors to ensure shadow-free inspection. Eases data exchange between production line and MES of choice to enable data traceability for connected factory.
Test Research Inc.
Fox2 modular pick-and-place technology
Expandable Pick-and-Place
Fox2 modular pick-and-place technology is now expandable in any direction. Combines jetting/dispensing, 2.5-D placement, electrical testing, inventory control and traceability. Has machine footprint of under 11 sq. ft. and can accept PCB sizes up to 16″ x 12″. Components with sizes from 01005 up to 3.15″ x 3.15″ can be placed. Machine achieves 10,800cph at 50µm with a two-nozzle head. Can be configured with up to 180 feeders. Can be fitted with jet valve for SMD glue or solder paste for manufacturing 2.5-D assemblies or micro-screw valve. Features ePlace software.
Essemtec
RUSH PCB Every Day Special Advertisement
TopLine Advertisement
Resinlab advertisement
Overnite Protos Advertisement
Online Electronics Advertisement
Technical Abstracts
In Case You Missed It
Component Technology
“Ultra-High Areal Number Density Solid-State On-Chip Microsupercapacitors via Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing”

Authors: Kwon-Hyung Lee, Seong-Sun Lee, et al.

Abstract: Microsupercapacitors (MSCs) have garnered considerable attention as a promising power source for microelectronics and miniaturized portable/wearable devices. However, their practical application has been hindered by the manufacturing complexity and dimensional limits. The authors developed a new class of ultra-high areal number density solid-state MSCs (UHD SS–MSCs) on a chip via electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing. This is, to the best of their knowledge, the first study to exploit EHD jet printing in MSCs. The activated carbon-based electrode inks are EHD jet-printed, creating interdigitated electrodes with fine feature sizes. Subsequently, a drying-free, ultraviolet-cured solid-state gel electrolyte is introduced to ensure electrochemical isolation between the SS–MSCs, enabling dense SS–MSC integration with on-demand (in-series/in-parallel) cell connection on a chip. The resulting on-chip UHD SS–MSCs exhibit exceptional areal number density [36 unit cells integrated on a chip (area = 8.0mm x 8.2mm), 54.9 cells cm−2] and areal operating voltage (65.9V cm−2). (Science Advances, Mar. 6, 2020, advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/10/eaaz1692)

Kyzen advertisement
Upgrade Your Knowledge text
Free Download badge
EMA Optimizing Power Supply Design
Learn about power supply design in our latest e-book and view our growing library of resources created by the PCB design experts at EMA Design Automation.
EMA Design Automation logo
Printed Circuit Design & Fab Circuit Assembly Magazine
Thanks for reading our July 2020 issue!